Proceeding International Seminar on Sociolinguistics and Dialectology 2017





Plenary Speakers:

Big Languages aren’t (Necessarily) Safe: Language Shift in the Major Languages of Indonesia
Abigail Cohn & Maya R. Abtahian

[Full Paper]

Language Change and Endangerment in West Java: Recent Dialectology Research
Multamia RMT Lauder & Allan F. Lauder

[Full Paper]


Parallel Session Presenters:

Phonological Accommodation in Situbondo-Bondowoso  Subdialect of Madurese
Agusniar Dian Savitri

[Full Paper]

Language Change on Medicine Themed Advertisement of Newspaper in 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s
Ami Pramesti Jewalani

[Full Paper]

Young People’s Viewpoint toward Women’s Swearing: a Sociolinguistic Study in Depok
Annisa  Nur Hanani & Marti Fauziah Ariastuti

[Full Paper]

The Indication of Sundanese Banten Dialect Shift in Tourism Area as Banten Society’s Identity Crisis
Alya Fauzia Khansa, Dilla Erlina Afriliani & Siti Rohmatiah

[Full Paper]

Variation of Lexicon and Phonology Verbs in Javanese Ngoko, Krama, and Krama Inggil in Desa Sendangsari, Kecamatan Minggir, Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta
Ayuninda Erdiani, Siti Nur Khasanah F. & Rahil Helmi

[Full Paper]

Constructing Cultural Identity in Business Narratives: Evidence from English as Business’ Lingua Franca
Condra Antoni

[Full Paper]

Morphophonemic {ber} in Indonesian Language
Dara Minanda & Aghnia Salsabila

[Full Paper]

Linguistic Evidence on Sundanese Lexical Changes in Badui Tribe Areas
Davin Rusady & Sri Munawarah

[Full Paper]

Language Varieties in the Southern Coast of East Java: Dialectology Research
Dinda Fitria Sabila & Sri Munawarah

[Full Paper]

Djoko Marihandono

[Full Paper]

Rembang Community’s Language Variety as the Form of Self Identity
Endang Tri Irianingsih, Bani Sudardi & Wakit Abdullah Rais

[Full Paper]

The Existence of Indonesian Language as a Threat of Mother Language Shift in the Tourism Area: Sociolinguistics Study at Carita Beach and Tanjung Lesung
Farista Finishari, Anggia Rahmania & Nurul Ayu Saraswati

[Full Paper]

Mini Research “The Tendency of Using Non Standard Language than Standard Language in TED Talks Video”
Fora Dilla Suwanda

[Full Paper]

Arabic Derivated Elements on the Characters’ Names of Wayang Punakawan: A Sociolinguistic Analysis
Hafidz Fadli

[Full Paper]

A Socio-Dialectology Analysis of Cepit Dialect
Haira Rizka

[Full Paper]

Language Variety of Javanese in Mengare Island, East Java
Inas Rifqia Lainufar, Lely Oktaviani & Iqbal Nurul Azhar

[Full Paper]

Language Attitude of Nomad Undergraduate Students of Universitas Indonesia: a  Case Study
Irwan Suswandi

[Full Paper]

Maintenance of Local Identity through Intergenerational Mother Tongue Continuity in Multilingual Tourism Society (Sociolinguistic Study at Carita Beach and Tanjung Lesung)
Lilis Siti Sulistyaningsih, Mahmud Fasya, Yulia Pertiwi Faisol, Septia Sari Wulandari & Riska Listhya

[Full Paper]

Differentiation of the Word Akan on the Educational Article in Five Newspapers Differing Period
Majid Ariyoga

[Full Paper]

Language Variation in the Family of the Community in the Border of Timor Leste and Malaka Regency
Maria Magdalena Namok Nahak

[Full Paper]

Dialectal Variation in Javanese of Kendal, West Java
Menik Lestari & Sri Munawarah

[Full Paper]

The Acceptable Indigenous and Foreign Language to the Acceptable Indonesia Language Shifting: Sociolinguistics Case Study on UNS Print and Copy Area Overviewed within Translation Studies
Mochamad Nuruz Zaman, M. Rosyidi & Asep Budiman

[Full Paper]

Language Maintenance on Kuang Baru Community
Muh. Ardian Kurniawan and Roni Amrulloh

[Full Paper]

Affixation Structure Changes on Bahasa Indonesia on Newspaper Articles of the 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s Periods
Muzainah Nurazijah

[Full Paper]

The Language Maintenance and Language Shift of Madurese Stylistic Level among Youths in Sumenep Regency, Madura Island, East Java
Nur Awaliyah Putri

[Full Paper] 

The Use of Song Titles in Spotify Playlist to Express the Affection
Nur Fathia Rahma Fauzia

[Full Paper]

The Interplay of Social Variables in Walikan
Nurenzia Yannuar

[Full Paper] 

Is Sundanese Shifted by Bahasa Indonesia?
Ramdan Sukmawan

[Full Paper]

Language Situation in Kebumen Regency
Ratih Rahayu & Sri Munawarah

[Full Paper] 

Language and Culture: Kinship System of Batak Simalungun Ethnic
Rodearta Purba

[Full Paper]

Innovation of Sundanese Language Dialect in Brebes Regency: Phonological Analysis Using Generative Phonology
Rozan Fahreza & Muhammad Ihsan

[Full Paper] 

The Use of Sundanese on Imperative Sentences from Parents to Children
Sonya Puspa

[Full Paper] 

A Dialectology Study of Lampung-Komering Relationship in Pringsewu Regency of Lampung Province

[Full Paper]

Searching the Mintul Word “Blunt” as a Geographical Variation of Sundanese Language
Wahya, Fatmah Djajasudarma & Elvi Citraresmana

[Full Paper]

Code Mixing on Signages of Public Space in Medan
Winda Zulhernanda

[Full Paper]

Metaphors in a Hierarchical System: a Socio-Cognitive Perspective
Yu-Chun Yang

[Full Paper] 

A Comparative Analysis of Language Changes in Three Different Saga Published in 1875, 1946, and 2017


Acoustic Description of Acehnese Monopthong Vowels: Female VS. Male Speakers from East Aceh
Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf*, Ika Apriani Fata, and Teuku Mohammad Aulia

[Full Paper]


[Full Paper] 

Language Maintenance of the Tionghoa Speakers towards Their Heritage Language in Aceh
Zulfadli A. Azis, Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf, Siti Raisha & Nurul Kamaliah

[Full Paper]






Abigail C. Cohn (Cornell University) & Maya R. Abtahian (University of Rochester)

The instatement of Bahasa Indonesia as Indonesia’s national language is widely cited as a successful example of language planning; yet it also has implications for endangerment of local languages. With over 700 local languages, Indonesia is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world. It is widely acknowledged that “small” languages are at risk of endangerment, but what is the fate of the “big” languages?  In a multifaceted project, we address this issue investigating language shift among the “big” languages of Indonesia, those with over 1 million speakers.




Ulrich Ammon’s

University of Duisburg-Essen


The linguistic correlate of globalization has sometimes been characterized as superdiversity and been projected onto models of the global language constellation. This paper describes the typical linguistic repertoires of today’s Europeans with reference to this theoretical background. It gives an overview of the dialect distributions within major European languages, of the distribution of languages in Europe and of their national and international standing, with English as the global lingua franca. It shows how the linguistic repertoires of Europeans, or a good deal of them, extend over all these types of language varieties and languages and their functions. For the detailed analysis the paper focuses on German and its national standard varieties and dialects, but draws parallels to other European languages. It also shows that the knowledge of the global lingua franca does not suffice but that languages like German or French are also needed, for national as well as for international purposes. The paper is based, among other sources, on the author’s recent book Die Stellung der deutschen Sprache in der Welt [The Status of the German Language in the World]. Berlin etc. 2015.






Bambang Kaswanti Purwo

Katharina Endriati Sukamto

Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya



The present paper is a preliminary attempt to portray the development of Javanese elementary school children in writing both in Indonesian and Javanese. For many of the children, Indonesian is not the mother tongue. The attempted portray, however, is not the result of a longitudinal study, as the data obtained for the analysis was carried out through one snapshot. The elementary school children at SDN Sarikarya, Yogyakarta, from the first to the sixth grade, were assigned to describe in writing the same picture in Indonesian and Javanese, i.e. a picture that depicts activities of people celebrating the Indonesian independence day of August 17. A comparison of the children’s writing from the first to the sixth grade reveals the developmental stages in their acquisition of the two language aspects required in writing. The aspects they have struggled with, as apparent from the writing of the first to the next grade, are to do with problems they have in dealing with (a) transferring from sound to spelling, (b) morphophonemic rules in word formation, (c) phrasal, (d) clausal (intrasentential), and (e) sentential (intersentential) constructions. Related to (c) to (e) is their problems in using intra- and intersentential connectives, lexical and grammatical words. In all grade levels, the students are more at ease when they write in Indonesian rather than in Javanese. At the lower grades (first and second grades), they produce more words and phrasal expressions in Indonesian than in Javanese. At the higher grades, the development of their writing in Indonesian is obvious in terms of their ability in expressing their ideas in the language.




Multamia RMT Lauder and Allan F. Lauder

Universitas Indonesia



Language endangerment studies focus on languages rather than dialects. There are relatively few studies of dialect death. We are interested to know what endangerment looks like when studied at the level of dialect. Can one dialect be threatened while another is vigorous? Can dialects be threatened, but in different ways? To shed some light on such issues, this article looks at a number of geolinguistic research studies of the Betawi language and its dialects. The Betawi language is an indigenous, regional language of Indonesia, spoken by several million people in and around the greater Jakarta area. It is currently threatened. The language, is Malay-based. It has two dialects and there is also a subdialect, Betawi Ora. The present review of geolinguistic studies of Betawi helps identify where the language and its dialects are used, provides evidence for language and dialect shift operating at the level of dialect, and also shows what the main forces driving language shift or language loss are. Further, the use of a consistent, empirical methodology across all the studies provides a diachronic perspective on geographical variation from between 1978 up to 2015. Three of the studies in particular paint a diachronic picture of language change in Bekasi over a period of thirty years that raises questions about the theory that the rate of language change is constant.


Keywords: dialect death, Betawi language, dialectology, language attitudes, language shift













Agusniar Dian Savitri
Universitas Negeri Surabaya



Situbondo and Bondowoso districts are located in the East Java Tapal Kuda area. Those districts are different from other districts in the Tapal Kuda area because about 90% of the speakers in these two districts are Madurese speakers. Although almost all speakers are Madurese speakers, there are variations that tend to be phonological variations. One of the reasons is the sound accommodation the speakers do. This study aims to describe phonological accommodation in Situbondo-Bondowoso subdialect of Madurese that causes variation and distribution of variations so that there is a division of sound areas in the two districts. Data collection methods were conducted by structured interviews on 32 informants at 8 points of observation. The list of inquiries used is a list of language center which consists of 1089 vocabulary. In addition, unstructured interviews were conducted to find out the reason for the speakers doing the accommodation. According to data analysis, the padan method is used to describe the process and causes of the accommodation. Isoglosic method is used to describe the distribution of phonological variations. The result of phonological accommodation in Madurese subdialek Situbondo-Bondowoso is a long-term accommodation that occurs in the direction of the migration of its speakers. The accommodation consisted of the transition of the mid vowel [ž] to the central vowel [\], the transition of front vowel [a] to the central vowel [\], the transition from the consonant of the geminated to the non-geminated, the transition from the consonant of the aspirated to the non-aspirated. Geographically, the Variations caused by accommodation configurate the sound area in the two districts. Phonological accommodation is also used by young speakers to obtain dialect/subdialect which is socially considered to be prestigious in society and the ability of Indonesian language also influence it.


Keywords: phonological accommodation, phonological variation, subdialect of Madurese






Alya Fauzia Khansa, Dilla Erlina Afriliani, Siti Rohmatiah

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia



This research used theoretical sociolinguistics and descriptive qualitative approaches. The location of this study is Tanjung Lesung and Carita Beach tourism area, Pandeglang, Banten. The subject of this study is focused on Tanjung Lesung and Carita Beach people who understand and use Sundanese Banten dialect and Indonesian language in daily activity. The subject consists of 55 respondents based on education level, age, and gender categories. The data taken were Sundanese Banten dialect speech act by the respondents, both literal and non-literal speech, the information given is the indication of Sundanese Banten dialect shift factors. Data collection technique in this research is triangulation (combination) in the form of participative observation, documentation, and deep interview by using “Basa Urang Project” instrument. This research reveals that the problems related to the indication of Sundanese Banten dialect shift in Tanjung Lesung and Banten Carita Beach which causes identity crisis to Tanjung Lesung and Banten Carita Beach people. This study discovers (1) description of Bantenese people local identity, (2) perception of Tanjung Lesung and Carita Beach people on the use of Sundanese Banten dialect in Tanjung Lesung and Carita Beach tourism area and (3) the indications of Sundanese Banten dialect shift in Tanjung Lesung and Carita Beach tourism area.


Key words: language shift, Sundanese Banten dialect, identity crisis





Ami Pramesti Jewalani

Universitas Indonesia


Living language are always and will always be changing. No living language are failed to change (Trask, 2010). We can never be aware of the change of language for we use it everyday, it can only be noticed at a certain range of time. Change in language can be seen through the recorded uses of language as in newspaper. Advertisement is one of the media that promote products and services to the public printed on the newspaper. Since advertisement use language in promoting any products, then its language also changes from time to time. This study aims to see how language in the advertisement of newspaper in three centuries, especially in medicine theme, change. The data used is medicine themed advertisements printed in the newspaper with Indonesian language in three points of time in 1800s, 1900s and 2000s taken from Indonesian National Library. By comparing the language used those advertisements, the writer examined the change phonologically, syntactically, and semantically. The result shows that there are changes in phonology such as adaptation of sound in Indonesian phonology, syntax such as phrase pattern change and in semantic level such as change in collocation. However the most salient change found is in semantic change. There are some changes in words referring to a disease, for example, or changes in how words in health domain collocate with other words. In 1800s the name of the ailment suffered was influenced by words from Dutch while in 20th century, Dutch influence on the name of the diseases has lessened or even gone. This change may be caused by the condition in Indonesia in 1800s when Indonesia was colonized by Dutch  and by what Indonesian feels toward Dutch. It is demonstrated by the result that language change can be triggered externally (Minkova, 2014) such as language contact.


Keyword : Advertisement, Medicine, Language Change, Language Contact




Annisa Nur Hanani & Marti Fauziah Ariastuti

Universitas Indonesia


Although we often hear people use swearwords in daily conversation, swearing is generally perceived as improper or disgraceful conduct by society. Many studies on people’s perceptions toward swearing have been conducted. They focus on whether men and women’s swearing is perceived differently and which of the two groups use swearwords more frequently in daily life. Little is known about what young people think of this behavior, particularly when this taboo language is used by women. The aim of this study is to discover young people’s opinion of women’s swearing based on sociolinguistic perspectives. It also discusses the correlation between respondents’ gender and education level and their perception towards this language behavior. Forty-two male and female students aged between 12-22 years old took part in this study. They were students of secondary schools and colleges who lived in Depok, a suburban district on the outskirts of Jakarta. The study was conducted by means of questionnaire. The respondents were asked to state their opinion about a number of situations in which swearwords are said by women. The students’ perception was analyzed based on their gender and education level and the manually calculated data were converted into graphs. The results show that female students are more skeptical, while male students are more tolerant toward this issue. Moreover, junior high school students are more averse than senior high school and college students.


Keywords: Women’s swearing; Swearwords; Young People’s Opinion; Education level; Sociolinguistics




Ayuninda Erdiani, Siti Nur Khasanah F, Rahil Helmi

Universitas Gajah Mada





This research will compare language variations that focus on 190 verbs of Javanese in the level of Ngoko, Krama, and Krama Inggil at Desa Sendangsari Kecamatan Minggir Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta. This research is categorized as dialectology study with sociolinguistic aspects. It will discuss the vocabulary that exists in one region and see the contrast of the dialect at Desa Sendangsari.  Previous research had done by Poedsoedarmo et al (1979) focusing on Javanese speech level in word class categories (Verbs, Nouns, and Adjectives). The purpose of this research is to describe the phonological and lexical variations of Ngoko, Krama, and Krama Inggil used by Javanese and to describe the difference factors beyond the variations of speech level in Desa Sendangsari Kecamatan Minggir Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta. In this study, researchers conducted interviews to four respondents by recording and note taking every respons given by respondents regarding the list of questions or spontaneous conversations that come out of them by using elicitation technique. The result of this study indicates that the verbs of Ngoko, Krama, and Krama Inggil have several variations of lexicon and phonology in describing a concept of the same meaning.  There are 100 verbs have lexical variations of Ngoko, 26 verbs of Krama, and 6 verbs of Krama Inggil. Moreover, the phonological variations spoken by the respondents are 36 verbs of Ngoko, one verb of Krama, and none of Krama Inggil. The differences in lexicon and phonology are influenced by the social factors of speakers such as age, occupation, education, and gender.


Keyword: verbs, language variations, Javanese, lexicon, phonology.





Condra Antoni

State Polytechnic of Batam


This article elaborates on identity construction(s) as instantiated through English business narratives of the richest Indonesian businessmen and in what extent their use of words or phrases reflect any cultural group membership. This article aims at contributing a valuable insight on the cultural identity construction enacted through the choice of words and phrases in the use of English as a lingua franca in business context regardless its standard or non-standard uses. The data were taken from the English narratives of the top ten 2015 richest Indonesian people ranked by Forbes magazine. The author gained the data from several business events and interviews which were freely accessed in video forms in Youtube. A discourse analytic approach is employed as the method. It was found that the richest Indonesian businessmen construct several identities such       a supporter of western value, a fan of religious and cultural integration, an Asian cultural member, and a family oriented person as well as and optimistic and appreciative business persons. Some of the identity constructions signal that they belong to certain cultural groups and some others are relevant to their position as businessmen.

Keywords: identity, narrative, English, culture, business



Dara Minanda & Aghnia Salsabila

Universitas Indonesia


This research raised the topic concerning the morfofonemic of Indonesian language, especially in morpheme {ber-}. The study aims to provide an overview of the change of the form of morpheme {ber-} and describe how the process of changemorpheme {ber-} in the Indonesian language that to happen. It is also to prove the theory about the change in language.The method used in this research is the method of quantitative and qualitative.The data collection be done to the study library of a collection of manuscripts that are still using characters Jawi, novels that are using the Melayu Pasar language, and articles of the actual. The results showed that there are language change, in particular the change in morpheme {ber-}.Morpheme {ber-}, who is known to have three forms of the {ber-}, {be-}, and {bel-} was previously is still have a very simple.In the manuscript a there isn’t any variation of the use of morpheme {ber-}, there’s only one form of morpheme, which is {ber-}.But as the change period, the use of morpheme {ber-} with varied with the languages rules. The morpheme {ber-} started to evolve as I do the comparison between the manuscripts that still using Jawi characters with the manuscripts of the stories that have been using Latin characters. The period when it started the variations morfem {ber-} can not be determined clearly, but the changes continued to occur even when the discovery of the manuscripts of stories with Latin characters and using the Melayu Pasar language, or who are called the Bacaan Liar.


Keywords: Jawi characters, Latin characters, Morphophonemic, Morpheme, Melayu Pasar language.




Davin Rusady & Sri Munawarah

Universitas Indonesia


Language changes occur slowly and almost unconsciously. Language changes will occur if the language-speaking community experiences changes in language usage. Vocabulary changes on the lexical level can be known through the loss of certain vocabulary, the growth of new vocabulary, and the survival of the old vocabulary with the change of pronunciation or sound. The phenomenon of language change can also occur in the Badui tribe areas because they speak in ancient Sundanese. In this study, researchers will compare the vocabulary of the Sundanese language in the Badui areas which are considered ancient with the Sundanese language vocabulary in Bandung Regency which is considered more modern. Therefore, the problem in this paper is how the change of vocabulary of Sundanese in the Badui tribe areas which is considered ancient and Sundanese language vocabulary in the area of ​​Bandung is considered more modern. The purpose of this research is to show the change of vocabulary in Sundanese in Badui tribe areas and Bandung Regency areas. The data were obtained from the informants in 14 villages, transcribed, and then compared with the data of the Sundanese language vocabulary in Bandung Regency. The findings obtained that vocabulary changes in Bandung Regency and ​​Badui tribe areas amounted to 142 vocabularies. The type of vocabulary change with the highest frequency is the vocabulary survived with the same pronunciation and the new growing grain, followed by the type of vocabulary persist with the same pronunciation and the lost words also vocabulary persist with the same pronunciation, the lost vocabulary, and the new vocabulary.

Keywords: language change, lexical, Sundanese, Bandung, Badui

Colloquial Language in Young Adult Fiction:

A Corpus-based Study on Language Variation


Dien Rovita & Totok Suhardijanto

Universitas Indonesia



Language development and language change may result from several factors, including its speakers. Language speakers whose significant contributions in language development is young adults. The language which is used by young adults in communication, either in spoken or written modes, is interesting to study further. Such kind of colloquial languages can also be found in Indonesia. One of the richest resources for this colloquial language is young adult fictions or novels. These novels have played an important role in recording the language variation from time to time.

This paper presents our corpus-based research on teenage language expressions in young adult fictions. Our young adult fiction corpus is built from teenage literatures published in Indonesia from 1990s to 2010s. In our analysis, a set of corpus methods such as collocates, concordances, n-grams, and phraseology is implemented. To understand and elaborate the meaning of a given expression, the context of expression use should be reviewed in a KWiC (keyword in context) concordance. The result of this research shows that colloquial expressions used by young adult in Indonesia is very unique due to its distinctive word choice.

Key words: language variation, colloquialism, young adult fiction, corpus-based study



Dinda Fitria Sabila & Sri Munawarah

Universitas Indonesia




Peta Bahasa-bahasa di Indonesia (1972) published by Lembaga Bahasa Nasional contain the spread of languages ​​in the southern coast of East Java consisting of several dialects and even languages. This condition is interesting to trace because there is no recent and detailed research on language varieties and situation in this region.

In addition, the language condition also supported with historical aspect, i.e. dominion history of Mataram Sultanate and Blambangan Kingdom which is possible strongly influence language varieties and situation that exist in the southern coast of East Java. Tjokrowinoto (1993: 4) states that the Javanese language is divided into three groups based on the glory time of the kingdoms in Java. One of them is the new Javanese language that developed since the XVII century during the second Mataram Sultanate. Therefore, an analysis of languages ​​in the southern coast of East Java as a remnant of Mataram Sultanate and Blambangan Kingdom dominion territory required to be done.

Based on these conditions, this study aims to describe and explain the language varieties and situation that exist in the southern coast of East Java with dialectology study. This research uses quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods are used to calculate dialectometry and qualitative methods for analyzing data based on language maps and the results of dialectometric calculations.


Keyword: Dialectology, language varieties, language situation, south coast, East Java






Djoko Marihandono

Universitas Indonesia


On January 14, 1808, there was a change of power in the East Indies (a term used for the Dutch East-Indies in the early 19th century), from Governor General Albertus Henricus Wiese to Herman Willem Daendels. That particular event was regarded as extraordinary, because the governor general had previously always been chosen out of the officials in the Dutch East-Indies. But this time the governor general came directly from the officials in Europe, who had no experience serving in the colony. In performing his duties, the new governor general made his own way of giving instructions, which structurally differed from the normative, standardized instructions of his predecessors. Moreover, his new way of giving instructions included the using of some words with connotative meanings, which was also unusual.

This paper will discuss the subjectivity in colonial archives between 1808 and 1811, not only from the sociolect perspective, but also from the chronolect. All the words with connotative meanings will be investigated and then patterned, so that their hidden tendencies can be revealed. Colonial archives containing the instructions of Governor General Daendels will be used as the data for this research, particularly his instructions to the Sultan of Banten during his ruling period in the East Indies (1808-1811).


Keywords: Structure, instructions, meanings, connotative, Javanese kings.



Endang Tri Irianingsih1, Bani Sudardi2, Wakit Abdullah Rais3

Universitas Sebelas Maret


Communicating with each other needs language as the media. Indonesia consists of thousands islands with so many local languages (dialects). The largest dialect is Javanese language. Javanese  language also has many variations due to geographical factor. The difference between one area and another has distinctive uniqueness. This article aimed to find out the difference of dialects between Rembang and Solo people. In addition, it also aimed to see the effect of dialect on its society’s social life. This study was a descriptive qualitative research with field method and observation and in-depth interview as the techniques of collecting data. The population was people living in Rembang coastal area and the sample consisted of informant selected using snowball sampling method. Data analysis was carried out using comparative technique and triangulation to sort the data. The problems addressed were: (1) how is the dialect of Rembang people in daily life? (2) what is the difference of Javanese dialect between Rembang and Solo people and its implication to social life? This article concludes that there is a difference between Rembang and Solo Javanese language dialects, characterized with suffix –em. In social life, Rembang Javanese dialect is the manifestation of their community’s identity.

Keywords: Dialect, Rembang people, social life, and self-identity.

 When Using Japanese Language Gets You Bullied:

A Sociolinguistics Analysis on Stigmatization of “Weeaboos”


Fachril Subhandian & Himawan Pratama

Universitas Indonesia


Stigmatization towards a community within the society usually comes from outside the community itself. However, an interesting phenomenon arises since the early 2010s, when the term “weeaboo” (or “Wapanese“) appeared. The term is used among Japanese popular culture fans to address to fellow Japanese popular culture fans who are considered have gone too far in expressing their fondness for Japanese popular culture products (namely manga, anime, and/or video game). While the scope of the term “have gone too far” is remain unclear, it seems that in many Japanese popular culture fan communities there has been a convention that someone will be labeled a “weeaboo” if he/she is too obsessed with Japanese popular culture, and thus try to think and act (dress, speak, etc.) as if they were Japanese, as seen in manga or anime. The emergence of the term “weeaboo” indicates that stigmatization towards an individual or a group of community members may also arise from within the same community.

Since Japanese language usage is also one key determinants of “weeaboo” stigmatization, it is interesting to make clear what kind of Japanese language determine whether someone fall into the category of “weeaboo” or not. In order to do so, a survey of Japanese language use among the Japanese popular culture fans who attended the Gelar Jepang 23, Universitas Indonesia will be conducted. This study intends to show that language preferences has created a stigmatization which generated social stratification within the Japanese popular culture fan communities.


Keywords: Japanese language, Japanese popular culture, social stratification, stigmatization, weeaboo



Farista Finishari, Anggia Rahmania, Nurul Ayu Saraswati

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia


This study aims to find a shift of the mother language or regional language by the existence of Indonesian Language in the tourism area of Tanjung Lesung and Pantai Carita. The mother langauge shift should be overcome by the good language inheritance to the children and young generation. The sense of pride that should arise will be fade if there is no good inheritance of language from parents. This study is presented in the description type from the results of questionnaire recap in decimal. The method that used in this study is qualitative description method, that is describing the data which is taken from the questionnaire results become the percentage of the respondent answer. The questionnaire method that used is also accompanied by the results of researchers interview to respondent. The results that obtained from this study is the fact that there is a shift in the mother language or regional language in the tourism area of Tanjung Lesung and Pantai Carita. This is seen from the percentage graph of an interview questionnaire with the titled “basa urang” that becomes one of the tool in this study. In addition, researchers also get the results from family tree description proving that there is language shift caused by the absence of mother language or regional language inheritance to the next generation.

Keywords: Sosiolinguistic, Inheritance, Shift, Language, Threat.



Fora Dilla Suwanda

Universitas Gajah Mada


The widespread of using non-standard language in several occasions influences the English speakers to use non-standard vocabularies in formal situation. In particular, code choice is taken by its domain. Formal situation usually uses standard language while informal situation uses non-standard language. This common situation does not appear in usage of  English nowadays. This phenomenon occurs in TED Talks utterances which used a few non-standard language in formal situation. This wrong “take-place” insisted me to do an observation toward the tendency of non-standard  language than standard language. I take the data from Oprah Winfrey Show as the source of informal situation. Moreover , I take data from TED Talks as a public platform as the source of formal situation.

This mini research is conducted to recognize set of familiar sentences in non-standard language and to find possible factors affected people employed non-standard language in particular occasion. In this case, I limit this research in stylistic lexical variation found in several talks of United States speakers. To obtain the result, research is drawn into two steps. Firstly, data is collected by using observational method with do the observation and note taking. Last step, data is analyzed by transcribing the utterances, categorizing the words, interpreting the factors behind, and completing with a conclusion.

Code choice of English speakers is not permanently consistent in their domain. The factors behind their stylistic lexical variation cannot guarantee their vocabulary choice. Formal and informal situation talks do not always employ their particular language. A widespread of non-standard language used in varied situations had forced the English speakers to get know and gradually enjoy to use it. In the end, the use of standard language in formal situation can also be messed up by non-standard existence.


Key words : non-standard, standard, domain, code choice, lexical variation.



Haira Rizka

Institut Agama Islam Negeri Syekh Nurjati Cirebon



This research aims to analyze possible Javanese varieties in Cepit dialect (CD) and examine the social phenomena of CD. Based on synchronic dialectology approach, synchronic descriptions are classified into two dimensions: vertical synchronic description which covers  phonology, morphology, and lexicology, and horizontal synchronic description which covers level of speech. The data of this research were taken from three observation areas (TP): TP 1, TP 2, and TP 3. The primary data were collected through structured interview using Swadesh wordlist completed with local dialect. The data collecting techniques of this research were observation and interview, and recording and written technics as the continuous techniques. The collected data were then synchronically analyzed by comparing each TP to gain the characteristics of CP. Based on vertical synchronic dimension, CD’s phonology consists of vowels, consonants, and consonant cluster phonemes: /mb/, /ml/, /bl/, /kl/, /gl/, /mr/, /pr/, /gr/, /kr/, /sr/, /ŋl/, /ŋɡ/, /ndʒ/, /ndh/, and /nd/. Then, in morphological variation, CD has two variations: affixations and reduplications. Affixations consist of prefixation, suffixation, and prefixation-suffixation; and reduplications consist of reduplicating the first word e.g. /ˈŋgɒsɔk-ˈŋgɒsɔk/, omitting the second word’s first phoneme e.g. /ŋuˈmbʌh uˈmbʌh/, in this case the consonant phoneme, and modifying the second words vocal, e.g. /wirʌ-wiri/. In lexical level, CD shares commonly received Javanese. The horizontal synchronic dimension shows that CD speakers mostly mix three levels of speech: ngaka, krama, and karma inggil in a sentence because of their lack knowledge.


Keywords: dialectology, Cepit dialect, Swadesh list



Hafidz Fadli

Universitas Indonesia


There was an assumption which says that the name of Punakawan characters on puppet (Wayang) are derived from Arabic language. The objective of this research is to prove whether the name of Punakawan characters is derived from Arabic or not. This research uses qualitative method with the literature study approach. This research start from some statements which state that the name of Punakawan characters, like Semar, Nala Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong are derived from Arabic however there is no proof linguistically. These characters began to be played in the beginning of the spread of Islam by Sunan Kalijaga. This thing shows that there was a relation between the spread of Islam with naming these characters as a dakwah to the Java society at that time. After the linguistic analysis, both phonological, morphological, and semantic research, the name of Punakawan characters have evidently derived from Arabic vocabularies. Semar is derived from sammir, Nala Gareng is derived from naala qariin, Petruk is derived from fatruk, and the last Bagong is derived from baagin. Beside, these characters played by Sunan Kalijaga since the spread of Islam in Java reinforces that the name of Punakawan characters are derived from Arabic language.

Keywords: Loanwords; Arabic Language; Punakawan; Islamic History



Inas Rifqia Lainufar[1], Lely Oktaviani[2] & Iqbal Nurul Azhar[3]

University of Trunojoyo Madura


Javanese is included in Malayo-Polynesian branch of Austronesian language family. It has some distinctive characteristics comparing to other languages used in Java island. When it is used in some particular areas, variations appear. One of the areas that the variations can be found easily is Mengare island. In Mengare island, some Javanese unique lexicons can be found. They are Javanese but some of their linguistic features are much influenced by Madurese. It is quite interesting to investigate since most of the people who inhabit the island are Javanese. Qualitative type of study was chosen as the type of this study.  Observation and interview method were used to supply the data of this study. While for data analysis, the writers applied correlation method analysis. The data above show us that there are some lexicons of Mengare which contain variations. The variations are classified into nouns (15 data), verbs (17 data), adjectives (20 data), conjunction (1 datum) and adverbs (3 data). The data are very different from the lexicons used by common Eastern Javanese. Because of that, they are included as Javanese language variety. In general, the variations of language in Mengare Island, cover two things. The first is the variation in the form of lexicons (lexical difference) and the second is the variation of language in the form of morphological process (morphological difference).

Keywords: Language variety, Javanese, Madurese, lexicons, Mengare island,



Irwan Suswandi

Universitas Indonesia


Language is always actively used as communication medium. In a communication involving more than one different language, one of the languages in the conversation can be chosen by a language the speakers. Language attitude that used by a native speaker is about mental position or feelings toward own language or another language (Kridalaksana, 2001, p. 197). In this borderless era, the interaction and mobilization between people are increasing. One of the examples is nomad undergraduate students who gain knowledge in universities in big cities, such as Universitas Indonesia. In this research, the researcher analyzed the language attitudes that used by nomad undergraduate students while communicating in the Universitas Indonesia. The theory used in this research came from Garret et al (2003) to analyze aspects related to language, and Jendra (2010) to sign the factors that became a tendency in language attitude. The researcher used questionnaires and interviews methods. Participants involved in this research were twenty undergraduate students from outside Jabodetabek with corpus data from questionnaires and interviews. From the data resulted in keyword about the reasons and factors of language attitude. This research concluded that the most influencing aspects of participants in language attitude in daily campus communication were behavior aspect and affective aspect. There were two main factors that encourage participants to use Indonesian dialect Jakarta; prestige and strength of that language and internal system of that language. Even so, they will try to use local language to their fellows from the same region, unless those fellows were reluctant to use local language, then the participants will adjust it by using Indonesian dialect Jakarta.

Keywords: attitude, communication, language, nomad, student


How Children and Adolescents Use nggak:

A Study on Language Variation in Written Form


Bernadette Kushartanti, Arianti Nur Amira, Fitria Rahma Dewi

Universitas Indonesia


The verbal and adjectival negation in Colloquial Jakarta Indonesian is “standardized” in youth magazine as nggak [ŋgaʔ] ‘no, not’ (see for example: Purwo 1997 and Sneddon 2006). Nevertheless, as in its spoken form, it has several variants, such as enggak, engga, ngga, gak, ga, ndak, and so on. The occurrence of such variants is sometimes influenced by its environment, i.e words that precede or follow the negation.

This study focuses on children’s (8-9 years old) and teenagers’ (13-14 years old) writings. The participants of this study are 120 children who are grouped into two. We use 15 sentences consisting of nggak as our instrument. Each sentence is designed by conditioned environment, namely words that follow the negation, such as nggak bisa ‘can’t’, nggak mau ‘don’t want’, nggak nanya ‘not asking’, etc. To elicit the productions, the sentences are read aloud by the researcher, and written by the participants. Instructions are given in Colloquial Jakarta Indonesian. Several variants of nggak occurred in the writings are classified and analyzed. This study is supported by participants’ demographic information, obtained from factual questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of questions on their language use at home and school, as well as, the uses of gadget and social media. Descriptive statistical analyses are conducted as we compare the uses of the variants between both groups

It is found that both groups tend to “violate” the standard written form of nggak. The difference between both groups is not significant. Nevertheless, the study shows how written forms represent the spoken forms, and how young generations in Jakarta perceive it.


Keywords: variation, children, adolescent, written form, negation





Lilis Siti Sulistyaningsih, Mahmud Fasya, Yulia Pertiwi Faisol, Septia Sari Wulandari,

& Riska Listhya

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia


Language is a central feature of human identity and a symbol of strong ethnic identity (Spolsky, 1999). The variety of languages ​​in the world shows the diversity of local identity and wisdom. This is a valuable cultural treasure that deserves to be preserved. In an area, usually there is not only one language, but also several languages. Chaer & Agustina (2014) revealed that the condition is called multilingualism. Such conditions can be seen in the tourism area of ​​Carita Beach and Tanjung Lesung. The people use the Indonesian language to facilitate the activities of communicating with both tourists and with fellow people of different tribes. Indirectly, this condition will cause the language shift from each local language into Indonesian language. If it persists, it will result in the language death which also affects the loss of local identity. One of the efforts to prevent these threats is by passing on the mother tongue in the family. This is in line with the opinion of Kridalaksana (1985) which states that if the community speaks the language that has been inherited, the language will remain alive. Based on the exposure, this research has a purpose to describe the intergenerational mother tongue continuity conducted by Carita Beach and Tanjung Lesung community as an effort to preserve local identity. The problem solving in this study used a theoretical sociolinguistic approach and a qualitative methodological approach. The data in this research are sourced from Carita Beach and Tanjung Lesung communities obtained by research instrument of interview package of Sundanese Language Survey “Basa Urang Project” (Cohn, et al., 2013). The data taken in the form of a list of the intensity of the use of various languages ​​by the public and information about the inheritance of language conducted by the community to offspring. The steps taken in this research data analysis using the model advocated by Miles and Huberman (1984), namely data reduction, display data, and conclusion drawing/verification.


Keywords: local identity, intergenerational mother language continuity, multilingualism





Majid Ariyoga

Universitas Indonesia



As the time progressed, the usage of language in the newspaper slowly changed. Language as a tool of the human mind and culture also evolved to adapt to the changes. Social context and periodic development were the main cause why language changes and varies. One example of language changes found in national newspapers was the usage of the word akan in the five educational articles from different period. The author attempted to analyze the chronolect of word akan in the educational article of the five Indonesia newspapers differing periods, namely Soeloeh Peladjar printed in 1913; Tjahaja in 1943; Kedaulatan Rakjat in 1955, 1990 and 2017. The research problem of this paper was how the word akan can be explained its differentiation based on chronological context. The purpose of this research was to reveal the differences and changes occurring in the word akan in such five national newspapers. The methodology paradigm applied in this research was qualitative descriptive. The author analyzed this research data by using theory of lexical and grammatical of semantics, theory of syntax, and language variation. The result showed that the usage of the word akan in the article of olden newspaper was more various than the other newspapers at the time thereafter. This was caused by the usage of the word akan at the olden time had a broader meaning so that it could be implemented in several different contexts.

Keywords: chronolect, akan, variation, linguistic changes.



Maria Magdalena Namok Nahak

Universitas Timor



This paper describes the language varieties in Malaka Regency, a district directly adjacent to the territory of the country of Timor Leste. As a border region of two countries, the social community in this region consist of various tribes and languages that are acculturated. In this area, Tetun Language is the most dominant language, beside Bunak and Dawan.  Tetun language itself consist of some dialects, such as Tetun Dili/Suai dialect, Foho dialect and fehan dialect. In order to know the language condition  in this area, a research was done to described language repertoire specially in family domain.  This study uses observations and interviews using the techniques involved free refer proficient  The second data conducted by interview and documentation. Both methods are used tool of record and record field. The data is validated with tringulasi techniques. The repertoire of language in society-Timor Leste border region of Malaka in ranah family in the district of Malaka can be either: (1) a wide repertoire of Indonesian non-formal, (2) the repertoire Indonesian formal diversity, (3) the repertoire was overcome local language Tetum Suai and (4) repertoire and Tetum Tetum Foho Fehan in the district of Malacca.

Language variations in border communities Timles-Malaka in the realm of the family in the district of Malaka can be either: (1) code switching and (2) code-mixing. Form over the code include: interpreting and code switching over speech level. Rather than the language code in the form consists of: (1) BI into BTD, (2) BI into BT-DF, (3) BT-DFO into BI, (4) BT-DS into BI, (5) BT DM into the BT-DS, (6) BT-DS into BT-DM.


Keywords: language variations, code switching, code-mixing

Dialectal Variation in Javanese of Kendal, Central Java

Menik Lestari & Sri Munawarah

Universitas Indonesia


Kendal is a regency on the north coast of central Java between Batang and Semarang. Javanese is the language used throughout central Java with several dialects postulated. A number of these dialects of Javanese are spoken in areas neighboring Kendal: the Semarsuradupati dialect in the east, the Pekalongan dialect in the west, and the Wonosobo dialect in the south. Kendal is of interest from a linguistic perspective because it is obviously situated in the context of areas where geographical variation is known to exist, but we do not yet have any dialectology or other studies that give a clear picture of what the language situation in Kendal is like. This study attempts to provide just such a picture, based on field work for language mapping. The research uses established methods in dialectology to gather data on 236 words consisting of 200 Swadesh basic words, 11 prepositions, greetings and reference words, and 25 words from the semantic field of kinship. The results go to show whether there is any variation at the level of dialect of Javanese in the area and also identify a number of lexical items or phonemic features that are distinctive of the area. The analysis and discussion also draw on evidence from lexicography, natural environment features and cultural and historical factors.


Keywords: Dialectology, Central Java, language situation, and language variation



Mochamad Nuruz Zaman1, M. Rosyidi2, Asep Budiman3

Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS)



If there are two languages in contact, there will be a problematic situation, language shift. When language is dominating, the dominated one should be maintained unless it will be potentially endangered, it will undergo some changes in structure and translation. They happened in UNS print and copy area, customers and employees interact by using Javanese and English terms. They are well customized use them in printing papers, copying data, searching materials, uploading and downloading references. Unfortunately, Indonesia language applied as the minor blended one. Based on the research gap above, a case study applied in sociolinguistics approach about acceptable indigenous and foreign language to acceptable Indonesia language shifting overviewed within translation study. The research has a goal to explain how far those languages affect to Indonesia language and their effects to translation quality. Research design is descriptive qualitative. Its locations are divided as focus determined boundary that consist of UNS print and copy area (setting), customer, employee, and researcher (participant), and translation quality (event). Sources of data are document and informant with the purposive data sampling. The data collection techniques are document analysis (script) and recording (transactional interaction). Their data validation presented by using source of data and methods triangulation techniques. Then data analysis delineated by four stages, they are domain, taxonomy, componential, and cultural theme analysis (Santosa, 2014: 67). Those data can be concluded that first translator whom in un-translation studies background empowers the indigenous language in data 1 and 4, and the foreign language in data 2 and 3. They support to national language in 50%. Meanwhile, that second translator whom in un-translation studies background empowers the indigenous language in data 1, 2 and 4, and the foreign language in data. They also support to national language in 75%. The research findings showed that four indigenous languages are two acceptable as Indonesia language shifting (50%) and two unacceptable as Indonesia language shifting (50%). Meanwhile, the two foreign languages are three acceptable as Indonesia language shifting (75%) and one unacceptable as Indonesia language shifting (25%) Furthermore, the supports of first translator in translation techniques are established equivalent, omission, transposition, and addition. Then, the supports of first translator in translation techniques are established equivalent, omission, and transposition. In conclusion, those languages have a great contributions in sociolinguistics and translations study through their shifting.

Keyword: indigenous language, foreign language, Indonesia language, translation technique, translation quality



Muh. Ardian Kurniawan & Roni Amrulloh

Hamzanwadi University



One of the important roles of language is becoming an identity of the speaker’s community. Despite living in the center of Sasak tribe area, the Kuang Baru community who have Samawa ethnic are still using their original language to communicate each other. However, Sasak language is acknowledged as the most language used in Lombok Island and Bahasa has begun to be taught at every level of school expected to influence the existence of Samawa language in this village in the future. This paper aims to discuss the maintenance of Samawa language in Kuang Baru Village in East Lombok. The data was collected by using simak and cakap method. Data was analyzed by combining diachronic (lexicostatistics) method and synchronic method (padan ekstralingual). The results show that the people in Kuang Baru Village still maintaining their Samawa language. It is indicated with the strong role of Samawa language in some usage setting, such as family, friendship, and technology. That is also supported by a factor of pride in the “uniqueness” of their language compared to other language spoken in other villages, cultural awareness of the community identity, and the language transmission which is continuous from generation to generation.


Keywords: Language preserve, Samawa Language, Kuang Baru Village, Sociolinguistic.



  1. Umar Muslim

Universitas Indonesia


The purpose of this paper is to criticize the practice of Indonesian corpus planning which aims at developing a logical language, that is a language whose rules follow logical thinking—whatever it means. To develop a logical language, many language planners prescribe rules to be adopted by the speakers. Any variation or change within the language is considered a corruption if it does not to conform logical thinking according to the planners’ view. The rules prescribed by language planners in reality are not always followed by the speakers. When this happens, language planners usually blame the speakers for their ignorance, laziness, or illogical thinking. Such a practice of corpus planning is at odd with the fact that language is a convention, it varies, and it is continuously changing. Good language planners have to take into a consideration these three facts if they want their prescribed rules to be adopted by the speakers. There are many examples that show that many rules in Indonesian prescribed by language planners are not followed by many Indonesian speakers. Part of the reasons why the rules are not followed by the speakers, as will be shown in this paper, is that the rules are made without considering their origin and development. The data of this study related to prescribed rules are taken from books and articles written by various Indonesian language planners, whereas the data related to the origin and development of language rules are taken from various written texts, such as novels.

Keywords: language change, convention, corpus planning, Indonesian, variation



Muzainah Nurazijah

Universitas Indonesia



Language is always in a state of change (Aitchison, 2004; Trask, 2010; Keller, 1994). The changes can be seen in a very fast time frame, but more often in a slowly time thus the changes are not seen directly in a moment. To see the process of language change, we can find it by paying attention to language as spoken or by language as communication system that show in written language. Koran as a written language saw how the language used by community with the real time. This study was conducted by using descriptive analysis method. This study aims to find out the changes in Indonesian language structure in three periods of time, the 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s. The theory of affixation which explain by Kridalaksana (1989), and looking at the changes from time to time will use as main theory. This research focused on the morphology term of affixation. Data were obtained from articles that taken from newspapers published during that period (Bianglala, 1869; Bintang Timor, 1885; Kompas, 1933 & 1966, and Kompas, 2017). This study shows that there are changes in the affixation pattern from time to time, which is on the rules of writing, especially in the di- prefix that is indistinguishable form di as preposition, because there is no consistency of the use of the discontinuity of the forecasts, then the prefix -me, the prefix ka-, the prefix ke-, the suffix -i, suffix -ken, suffix –kan, and suffix –an  have also a different pattern in each period, especially when the affix used in the combination of affixes structure.


Keywords: Affixation, language change, morphology





Universitas Indonesia/Leiden University Center for Linguistics



Southwest Maluku is home to 24 languages, of which 23 of them are Austronesian, and only one of them is non-Austronesian: Woirata (Taber, 1993). Woirata is spoken on Kisar Island, together with the three other languages:  Meher, Local Malay, and Indonesian. De Jong (1937) suggests that there are 1500 speakers of Woirata. As an endangered language having only a few numbers of speakers, Woirata’s struggle to survive is an interesting story. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the language use and language attitude of Woirata speakers on Kisar Island, Southwest Maluku, Indonesia.

Indonesian language is used as the national language and is also nationally acknowledged as the language of education. However, instead of formal Indonesian, Woirata speakers tend to use the Melayu Tenggara Jauh (MTJ) more often than Indonesian (Engelenhoven, 2002). Even though the questionnaire reveals that they use Indonesian on their daily activities, the type of Indonesian used appears to be the typical dialect of local Malay: Melayu Tenggara Jauh (MTJ). Speakers under 30 years old use MTJ when they speak to speakers from other languages and sometimes they even use MTJ at home when talking to their parents and other family members.

Woirata speakers indicate that their grandparents’ generation used to be very fluent in Meher. In fact, they also used Meher as the lingua franca of the island at that time. Most of the traditional songs in Woirata were sung in Meher, because they wanted Meher people to understand the songs and thus feel intimidated. During that period, the songs mostly shared the story of Woirata’s ancestors as the real lords of the land. Since the introduction of local Malay (or borrowing the term from Engelenhoven, Melayu Tenggara Jauh) as their lingua franca, the use of Meher by Woirata speaker is declining. Currently, the old generations of Woirata (60 – 80 years old) are no longer able to speak Meher. They would rather choose using MTJ or Indonesian as their lingua franca.


Keywords: sociolinguistics, language use, language attitude, language contact



Nur Awaliyah Putri

Universitas Gadjah Mada


Sumenep Regency is considered as the center of Madurese culture and its people emphasize the importance of a stylistic level to speak to other people who are younger, same age or older than them. This research aims to find out the language maintenance and shift of Madurese stylistic level among youths in Sumenep Regency. The writer focuses on three Madurese stylistic levels which are enjâ’ iya (used to younger addressee), éngghi enten (used to same age addressee) and éngghi bunten (used to older addressee). The writer chooses as many as 50 youths, consisted of 25 females and 25 males, with age ranged from 14 to 18 years old as the respondents of this research. The writer asks them to fill in questionnaire items focused on the respondents’ self-perception about the proficiency and the usage of enjâ’ iya, éngghi enten and éngghi bunten, and the language attitude towards Madurese. The writer analyzes the data by using descriptive statistic technique. The result shows that there is a maintenance of the usage of enjâ’ iya to speak to younger people, and the usage of éngghi bunten to speak to older people, and there is a shift of the usage of éngghi enten to enjâ’ iya to speak to people with same age. In addition, the results also show that the language attitude of youths in Sumenep Regency towards Madurese as their culture and identity indicates a positive sign.


Keywords: Language Maintenance, Language Shift, Madurese, Stylistic Level, Sociolinguistics




Nur Fathia Rahma Fauzia

Universitas Indonesia


Music is the variety of sounds and rhythms that are heard by many people every day. There are some ways to listen to the music. In the Internet and in the digital world, it is possible to listen to the music through a digital music streaming service, for example Spotify. To access Spotify, users need to create an account, be a member, and then subscribe every month. After that, users are able to play thousands of songs, create playlists, and listen to other Spotify users’ playlists. Users are also possible to listen to the music on some devices, such as smartphone, computer, and smart television. Most members use Spotify only as a music streaming service to listen to the music. In actual fact, Spotify offer users an opportunity to describe and share feeling through song titles and playlists. Users are able to take advantage of the song title in Spotify playlist as a creative medium to express their affection.

Based on that background, the author explores and identifies the use of song titles in Spotify playlist to express the affection. To obtain the result of research, the method used is qualitative method. The corpus is the song titles in the playlist created by Spotify user. If the song titles in the playlist are sorted, it will become a sentence. Then the author identifies and analyzes the linguistic features that reflect the relationship between the use of the song titles in Spotify playlist and the attitude of Spotify user, for example to express the affection. The author also focuses on communication through Spotify playlist. To get the access to the Spotify playlist, the author creates an account and becomes one of the Spotify members. Better understanding of Spotify can offer strategies for users for insight into the way language is used in a wider society and in a digital world.


Keywords: Song title, feeling, language use, gender, Spotify



Nurenzia Yannuar

Leiden University/Universitas Negeri Malang



The paper focuses on how Walikan, a youth language from Malang, Indonesia, is spoken across different gender and age groups. As youth languages are typically associated with boys, I first investigate the extent to which women and girls take part in or have influence on Walikan. Second, I analyze the forms of Walikan in different age groups. My analysis includes a systematic comparison of sociolinguistic questionnaires and spoken data from a balanced number of male and female speakers from different age groups. The results of the study reflect a preliminary attempt to understand how male youth language can enter the speech domains of females and middle aged individuals. Its findings can inform sociolinguistic descriptions of youth languages in Indonesia and in general.

Keywords: youth language, East Javanese, variety, gender, age



Ramdan Sukmawan

Muhammadiyah University of Sukabumi 


Sundanese is spoken by mostly Sundanese society in the area of Sukabumi municipality in their social interaction. It is not only Sundanese but also Bahasa Indonesia is spoken by Sundanese society in their daily life. It can say that Sundanese society who lives in the area of Sukabumi municipality is societal bilingualism. Yet, if it is concerning with the use of Sundanese from time to time particularly in Sukabumi municipality, there is a tendency recently that Sundanese society do not want to speak Sundanese in most of their social interaction. It is shown from the frequency of Sundanese use in daily communication activity. The Sundanese shift is concerned with the practical use of Bahasa Indonesia, the prestige of Sundanese nowadays, modernization, and education at school which compels student to speak Bahasa Indonesia. The paper aims at describing Sundanese language shift. It is interesting to study the shift of Sundanese use by Bahasa Indonesia and how Sundanese society corcern to their language in this case. The research method uses descriptive method, which is conducted by seeing the fact of Sundanese language shift in the area of Sukabumi municipality. The data were collected by in depth interview and giving questioner.


Keywords: Language shift, Sundanese, Sukabumi




Rozan Fahreza, Muhammad Ihsan

Universitas Diponegoro


Every language naturally has the same possibility to make innovation. Pei (1966:26) stated that the scope of “Language Innovation” includes sound shift, morphology or meaning that comes as a result of geographical location and spreads to other territories. Indonesia with its wide region has very various communities. There are hundreds of ethnic groups and languages in 34 provinces throughout the country. This diverse society results in the innovation of language. Java and Sunda are known as two major local languages in Indonesia, the former has 84 million native speakers while the latter has 34 million speakers. Sundanese, in its development, spreads in West Java, Banten and some part of Central Java. The spread of Sundanese causes some dialects, one of the dialect is Sundanese in Brebes. Nothofer (1977:59) revealed that Sundanese has four dialects: (1) Banten, (2) Bogor, (3) Priangan and (4) Cirebon (includes western part of Brebes). There are two types of language innovation, which are Internal Innovation and External Innovation. This research aims to describe the innovation of Sundanese dialect in Brebes. The study focuses on phonetic and phonological aspect of language which is visualized through language’s sound shift. The method being used in this article is recording technique, the pronunciation of the respondents speaking Javanese language (JL) and standard Sundanese language (SSL) are compared with Brebes sundanese language (BSL) pronunciation to find the differences. The data were analyzed using the theory of Generative phonology. The results come with changes of sound in BSS which shows the influence of Javanese and Sundanese language in Brebes Sundanese dialect.



Ratih Rahayu; Sri Munawarah, M. Hum

Universitas Indonesia,


As a language with a large number of speakers, Javanese language has a variation in the usage called dialect, one of them is Banyumas dialect or Ngapak dialect. On the southeast side, Banyumas dialect area coverage is bounded by Kebumen Regency. Sub-district Prembun (one of the subdistricts in Kebumen) and surrounding areas referred to as the transition region of Yogyakarta dialect or standar dialect, while the Kebumen Regency itself is referred to as the bounday area of Banyumas dialect. As a meeting place between Banyumas dialect and Yogyakarta dialect, Javanese language in Kebumen Regency influenced by the two dialects. Formulation of this research problem is “How the language situation in Kebumen based on study of dialectology?” Further, language situation to be discussed related to variation of phonological and lexical variety influenced by Banyumas and standard dialect. The purpose of this study is to explain linguistic situation in Kebumen District through the exposure of phonological variations and lexical variations influenced by Banyumas dialect and standard dialect. Data is collected at 26 subdistricts in Kebumen Regency using questionnaire. Techniques used in data collection are structured interviews. Meanwhile, the list of questions used are Swadesh basic vocabulary and basic vocabulary of the function word. The further data processing is done by creating isoglos and counting of dialectometri. The result of this study indicates that in Kebumen there is no dialect or language difference. The Javanesse language used in Kebumen is Banyumasan dialect or Ngapak dialect. This is in accordance with the recognition of the speakers community that they use the Banyumasan or Ngapak dialect. In addition, there are phonological variations and lexical variations.  Phonological variations and lexical variations are influenced by Banyumasan dialect and Yogyakarta dialect. It is found special vocabularies in Javanesse language in Kebumen.

Keywords: dialectology, Javanesse language, phonological variation, lexical variation, isogloss



Rodearta Purba

Universitas Negeri Medan


Batak Simalungun is one of ethnics in Indonesia, exactly located in North Sumatra province. The statement that structure of a language determines the way in which the speakers of that language view the world is still debatable. In relation to this, the objectives of this study are: (1) to describe how Batak Simalungun ethnic create the kinship system, especially the terms of address, (2) to describe the use of terms of address in Batak Simalungun ethnic, and (3) to analyze the terms of address semantically fit into Indonesian language. The data of the terms of address were gathered from two qualified informants. They are considered qualified informants because they are native speakers (52 and 65 years old), got experience in leading cultural ceremonies of Batak Simalungun. To have a deeper understanding of the terms of address, both the informants were asked some questions by the writer. The result of the study shows that the kinship system was created based on blood, marga (family name) and the relationship in the society. The terms of address of Batak Simalungun were used by Simalungun people when they speak among themselves using Simalungun language or Indonesian. Sometimes they also use the terms of address when they speak to other ethnics. Semantically, some of the terms of address can be analyzed but some do not. In short, they create them arbitrary. Besides, other ethnics sometimes use the terms of address inappropriately because they make an analogy to Indonesian language, and consequently it breaks the communication.


KeywordsKinship; Batak Simalungun; Marga (family name); Addressing




Sonya P. Suganda

Universitas Indonesia


In the life of every individual, it can be almost assured that he/she grew up in a specific linguistic environment. The language he/she acquired came from his/her closest environment since his/her childhood, which he/she then uses in his/her daily life throughout his/her adolescence. This language will then turn into his/her native tongue. Even so, there are many occurrences where a person grows up in two different languages. This normally happens to children of bi-national marriages or people who live in a region where both the national language and a local language are equally present.

The paper is based on the writer’s personal experience, who grew up in two different languages, namely Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) and Sundanese. To her, Indonesian is a more dominant language because it has a wider area of usage. Sundanese is only used in her family and with her closest friends, and in a very specific context, i.e. while making casual conversations. The usage of Sundanese is also very restricted. The communication in Sundanese is mainly initiated by parents, delivered from parents to children, and not vice versa. The context in which the parents use Sundanese is only while producing imperative sentences, and not for conversational purposes.

This language phenomenon can be examined through various perspectives in linguistics, ranging from the perspective of language acquisition, dialectology, to sociolinguistics. This paper will examine the data using theories of sociolinguistics from Löffler (2015) on functiolect (language usage based on its function). The objective of the paper is to further classify the so-called “daily language” ‘Alltagsprache’, as one of the forms of functiolect. Qualitative approach is used in this paper, and the datas were based from the writer’s personal experience that was gathered from the familial environment of the writer.


Keywords: native language/tongue, Sundanese, imperative sentences, functiolect.




Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia


This study aimed at revealing the relationship between Lampung isolect and Komering isolect spoken in Pringsewu Regency of Lampung, whether both of them belong to same language or not. This study was conducted in a Lampung Pesisir community village, Lampung Pubian community village and a Komering community village by analyzing wordlist which consists of 200 words of Swadesh,  52 words of body parts and 98 words of activities. The relationship of the both lect or the “language distance” was measured by using Seguy’s dialectometry with percentage range proposed by Lauder. The result of this study showed that Lampung Pesisir isolect and Komering isolect had 29,6% of differences in their lexicon. Meanwhile, between Lampung Pubian isolect and Komering isolect, the lexical differences reached 31,7%, which means that both of them are in idiolect differences. This close relationship between both languages was also reflected in sound correspondences and sound change variatons. The sound [a] in Lampung Pubian isolect corresponds to the sound [ɔ] in Komering isolect and Lampung Pubian. The sound [ə] in Pesisir subdialect and Pubian subdialect of Lampung language correspond to sound [a] in Komering Language. The evidence of this close relationship was also shown by lexical variations based on assimilation and sincope. This study concluded that both languages are linguistically same despte their cultural claim as different language.

Keywords: dialectology, Komering, Lampung, lexical, sound correspondence.



Wahya, Fatimah Djajasudarma, Fatimah Djajasudarma, & Elvi Citraresmana

Universitas Padjajaran



Blunt concept is a universal concept known in the languages ​​of the world. This word includes the word in the 200 word Swadesh List. In Sundanese the concept of blunt is expressed by the word mintul. The word mintul includes a standard Sundanese or Sundanese vocabulary. Based on several researches of dialect geography (Nothofer, 1977, Prawiraatmaja et al., 1979, Suriamiharja et al., 1984; Wahya, 1995, 2005; Wahya et al., 2016), this word has variations as a geographical dialect. In addition to the known spell, in some places also known other words, such as montul, kodol, and medu ‘. The word mintul and montul each show different dialects in Sundanese, ie, i-u, and o-u, dialects. Both dialects have different geographic distributions. Diacronically the word mintul and montul is the original word of Sundanese. The word kodol, and medu ‘ is a form of innovation. In subsequent developments, the word mintul has a large geographic area. That is, the i-u dialect is known more than the o-u dialect. Are there other geographical variations for the word mintul and how is its geographical distribution in the Sundanese language use area? This paper will try to discuss this issue, either synchronously or diakronis.


Keywords: variation, innovation, geographic dialect, synchronous, and diachronic.



Windha Zulhernanda

Universitas Negeri Medan



This research investigated the uses of code mixing into English in signage in public space in Medan. The aim of this study were to find out : 1) the types of code mixing used in the signage in public space in Medan, 2) the reason of using code mixing in signage in public space in Medan.  The data were taken from public space in Medan as many as 50 signages which contain using English only, Using Indonesian only and  code mixing with english. The data analyzed based on the linguistics form of code mixing by Muysken’s Theory and the reason of code mixing by analyzed the pattern of the words and social class and the nature of products advertised influence what variety is used. The result after clasification the types of code mixing were insertions have 17 signages (65,39%), alternation have null signage (0%), and congruents lexicalization have 9 signages (34,61%), based on the result, the use of the current English language in signages in Medans’ Public Space is equally influential as Indonesian. there are some words that have become the language used everyday by the audience and people who have many who understand the word, rather than the meaning of the word using the Indonesian language. so the status code mixing using the current English language, no longer for grab the readers attention, but the public has very understanding the meaning of the word


Keywords       :   Insertion, Alternation, Congruents Lexicalization, Signages



Yu-Chun Yang

National Taiwan University


The current study aims to explore what kind of metaphors are used in a strictly hierarchical system, and how these metaphors reveal the attitudes, ideologies and identity towards the particular social circumstance. As a case study, this paper examines how young males conceptualize the obligatory military service in Taiwan. The theoretical framework of this study includes conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) and blending theory (Fauconnier & Turner, 1998). Since conceptual metaphors reflect humans’ understandings from varied embodied experiences, due to the military service as an obligation for adult men in Taiwan, the use of metaphors reveals their collected conceptualization towards the system. Based on the materials from the two online BBS forums, four salient metaphors are identified, e.g., humans in military service system are animals, military camp is underworld, military service life is a play and military service is slavery. We obtain three main findings. Firstly, metaphors reflect the draftees’ construal of the system, illustrating their attitudes and ideologies as social cognition (van Dijk, 2001), and their identity as a member of subordinates. Secondly, metaphors in a hierarchical system such as in the military service further demonstrate the draftees’ critical thinking, the euphemistic function of language, and the emotional disclosure function. Thirdly, the use of metaphors is highly correlated with the social experiences derived from the military service and is meanwhile accompanied with the disapproval and resistance to the system.

Keywords:  conceptual metaphor, attitude, ideology, identity, hierarchical system, military service in Taiwan




Universitas Indonesia


This paper presents the changes of Bahasa in Indonesia’s saga that published in three newspapers from different periods of time in which allegedly occur in different periods of time with 71 years gap. The purpose of the analysis is to uncover the process, movement, and pattern of change in a language, especially Bahasa, from past to present that generate a new modification. It aims to reveal any formation or transformation from certain years so that the changes in Bahasa can be noticed, learned, and even predicted through the saga that exist in two periods of era, pre- and post independence’s day of Indonesia. In consequence, the method of analysis uses qualitative methodology as for describing the interpretation of the analysis data and finding since the method means and stresses for research based on real life issues as the data research. The technique of analysis is a diachronic approach done by determining, comparing and analysing its internal changes from each saga published by three different newspapers with different stage years. The changes in internal part of language includes its nature properties in which constitute micro elements such as the sounds, formations, arrangements and interpretations of the words in Bahasa.Thus, the analysis applies micro linguistics theory to examine the data such as phonology, semantics, morphology and syntax as the groundwork of traditional view of language change in internal factor. The analysis findings show indications that changes in Bahasa indeed occurred in from 1875, 1946, and 2017 with a various pattern such as substitution in certain sounds, specification in compositions, and transformation in meanings of words.

Key words: Change, language, Bahasa, analysis, years.



Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf*, Ika Apriani Fata, and Teuku Mohammad Aulia

Universitas Syiah Kuala


This research aims to describe the Acehnese monophthong vowel qualities produced by the female and male speakers of the North Aceh dialect in Aceh. Previous studies have described the characteristics of these vowels acoustically, nevertheless, these studies only focused on the female speakers. This study intends to fill in the research gap by also investigating the male speakers. Purposive sampling was used to select five female and five male speakers as the participants. Data were collected and analyzed in the Phonetics Laboratory at Syiah Kuala University. The vowels were collected through elicitations of ten Acehnese target words (adapted from Pillai & Yusuf, 2012) articulated in carrier sentences. The recordings were saved in WAV files, and Praat software version 6.0.14 (Boersma & Weenink, 2016) was used to analyze the qualities of the vowels. The first two formants (F1 and F2) were cues for their acoustic description. Based on the average values of the formants and t-tests, the results showed that each vowel quality between the female and male speakers is significantly different. The vowel space of the female speakers is also seen to be lower and more fronted compared to the vowel space of the male speakers, which is seen to be higher and more back. Hence, this study has revealed the approximate values and measurements of the Acehnese monophthong vowel qualities produced by female and male speakers as a scientific documentation that can benefit future research in Acehnese language variation, language change, and dialectology.



Zulfadli A. Aziz, Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf*, Siti Raisha and Nurul Kamaliah

Universitas Syiah Kuala


The Khek tribe is one of the dominant Chinese or Tionghua tribes who settle in Aceh. The language they use is one of the common ways of identifying themselves. The main aim of this study is to investigate the language use, efforts and challenges of these speakers in maintaining their heritage language, in this case, Khek. The respondents were four Tionghua adults and two children residing in the Peunayong area, Banda Aceh. A qualitative approach was used and, hence, interviews were conducted to collect the data. The questions asked were to explore the language use of the Tionghua towards their heritage language, their efforts to keep the language alive in their community, and the challenges they face in maintaining the language. The results indicate that the respondents still strongly maintain Khek in the home and among close friends. Khek is also regarded as an important part of their Tionghua identity, and so a way of preserving the language is by still using it among family members in the home. Challenges faced in preserving their language are from the environment of a majority of Acehnese and Indonesian speakers, and the educational school system that prioritizes Indonesian and English in the curriculum, among others. Thus, the need for using Khek is restricted only in the home domain. The paper further describes the efforts made by the adults in preserving Khek to their generations. Nonetheless, the respondents agree that a more serious support from their own community and the local government is needed for the maintenance of their heritage language for generations to come.


Keywords: Language maintenance, efforts, challenges, Khek Chinese, Aceh.



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